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Dr. Claudia Fichtel

Leitende Wissenschaftlerin

Verhaltensökologie & Soziobiologie

+49 551 3851-467


Kellnerweg 4
37077 Göttingen



Sozialität und Gesundheit,


Articles in Refereed Journals

Smith JE, von Rueden CR, van Vugt M, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2021) An evolutionary explanation for the female leadership paradox. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9:676805. 
doi: 10.3389/fevo.2021.676805

Kavanagh E, Street SE, … Fichtel C…, Slocombe K (2021) Dominance style is a key predictor of vocal use and evolution across nonhuman primates. R. Soc. Open Sci. 8: 210873.

Colchero F, Aburto JM, … Fichtel C, …, Alberts SC (2021) The long lives of primates and the ‘invariant rate of ageing’ hypothesis. Nature Communication 12: 3666.

Dinter K, Heistermann M, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2021) Life on the edge: behavioural and physiological responses of Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi) to forest edges. Primate Biology, 8, 1-13.

Rasolofoniaina BN, Kappeler PM; Fichtel C (2021) Wild narrow‐striped mongooses use social information to enhance behavioural flexibility. Ethology 27:253-266.

Amoroso CR, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C, Nunn CL (2020) Temporal patterns of waterhole use as a predator avoidance strategy. Journal of Mammalogy 101: 574-581

Amoroso CR, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C, Nunn CL (2020) Water availability impacts habitat use by red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons): an experimental and observational study. International Journal of Primatology 41:61-80

Defolie C, Merkling T, Fichtel C (2020) Patterns and variation in the mammal parasite–glucocorticoid relationship. Biological Reviews 95: 74-93

Dore KM, Hansen MF, … Fichtel C, …, Fuentes A (2020) Review of GPS Collar Deployments and Performance on Nonhuman Primates. Primates. 1-15

Fichtel C (2020) Monkey Alarm Calling: It ain’t all referential, or is it? Animal Behavior and Cognition 7: 101-107

Fichtel C, Dinter K, Kappeler PM (2020) The lemur baseline: How lemurs compare to monkeys and apes in the Primate Cognition Test Battery. PeerJ 8:e10025

Henke von der Malsburg J, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2020) Linking ecology and cognition: does ecological specialisation predict cognitive test performance? Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 74: 154

Rasolofoniaina BN, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2020) Neophobia and social facilitation in narrow‑striped mongooses. Animal Cognition 24: 165-175

Rudolph K, Fichtel C, Heistermann M, Kappeler PM (2020) Dynamics and determinants of glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in wild Verreaux’s sifakas. Hormones and Behaviour 124: 104760.

Schubiger MN, Fichtel C, Burkhart JM (2020) Validity of cognitive tests for nonhuman animals: pitfalls and prospects. Frontiers in Psychology 11: Article 1835.

Yi Y, Fichtel C, Ham S, Jang H, Choe JC (2020) Fighting for what it’s worth: participation and outcome

of inter-group encounters in a pair-living primate, the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch). Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 74: 96

Yi Y, Fichtel C, Kim E, Choe JC (2020) Impacts of intergroup interactions on intragroup

behavioral changes in Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch). International Journal of Primatology 41:363-381

Amoroso CR, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C, Nunn CL (2019) Fecal contamination, parasite risk, and waterhole use by wild animals in a dry deciduous forest. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 73: 153

Buil JM, Peckre LR, Dörge M, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM, Scherberger H (2019) Remotely releasable collar mechanism for medium-sized mammals: an affordable technology to avoid multiple captures. Wildlife Biology: 1-7

Gogarten JF, Calvignac-Spencer S, …, Fichtel C, …, Leendertz FH, Roos C, Noll A (2019) Metabarcoding of eukaryotic parasite communities describes diverse parasite assemblages spanning the primate phylogeny. Molecular Ecology Resources doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.13101 

Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2019a) Soziale Ungleichheit. Interdisziplinäre Anthropologie: 3-31

Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2019b) Soziale Ungleichheit. Interdisziplinäre Anthropologie: 87-95

Kappeler PM, Fichtel C, van Vugt M, Smith JE (2019) Female leadership: A transdisciplinary perspective. Evolutionary Anthropology, 28:160-163. DOI: 10.1002/evan.21783

ManyPrimates, Altschul DM, Beran MJ, Bohn M, Caspar KR, Fichtel C, Försterling M, Grebe NM, Hernandez-Aguilar RA, Kwok SC, Llorente M, Simpson EA, Szabelska A, Taylor D, van der Mescht J, Völter CJ, Watzek J (2019). Collaborative open science as a way to reproducibility and new insights in primate cognition research. Japanese Psychological Review, 62, 205–220

ManyPrimates, Altschul DM, Beran MJ, Bohn M, Callj, DeTroy S, Duguid SJ, Egelkamp CL, Fichtel C, Fischer J, Flessert M, Hanus D, Haun DBM, Haux LM, Hernandez-Aguilar RA, Herrmann E, Hopper LM, Joly M, Kano F, Keupp S, Melis AP, Motes Rodrigo A, Ross Sr, Sánchez-Amaro A, Sato Y, Schmitt V, Schweinfurth MK, Seed AM, Taylor D, Völter CJ, Warren E, Watzek J (2019) Establishing an infrastructure for collaboration in primate cognition research. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0223675

Noonan MJ, Tucker MA, …, Fichtel C, …, Calabrese JM (2019). Which home range estimator should I use? An analysis of autocorrelation and bias in home range estimation. Ecological Monographs. 89: e01344

Peckre LR, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2019) Clarifying and expanding the social complexity hypothesis for communicative complexity. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology. 73:11

Rudolph K, Fichtel C, Schneider D, Heistermann M, Koch F, Daniel R, Kappeler PM (2019) One size fits all? Relationships among group size, health, and ecology indicate a lack of an optimal group size in a wild lemur population. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 73: 123

Sperber AV, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2019) Should I stay or should I go? Individual movement decisions during group departure in redfronted lemurs. Royal Open Science 6:180991. DOI:10.1098/rsos.180991

Anania A, Salmona J, Rasolondraibe E, Fabien J, Chikhi L, Fichtel C, Kappeler P, Rasoloarison R (2018) Taboo adherence and presence of Perrier’s sifaka (Propithecus perrieri) in Andrafiamena Forest. Madagascar Conservation & Development 13: 1-8

Cauchoix M, Chow PKY, …, Fichtel C,  …, Morand-Ferron J (2018) The repeatability of cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B 373: 20170281. Doi:10.1098/rstb.2017.0281

Fichtel C, Schnoell AV, Kappeler PM (2018) Measuring social tolerance – an experimental approach in two lemurid primates. Ethology 124, 65-73. DOI: 10.1111/eth.12706

Henke-von der Malsburg J, Fichtel C (2018) Are generalists more innovative than specialists? A comparison of innovative abilities in two wild sympatric mouse lemur species. Royal Society Open Science 5: 180480.

Huebner F, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2018) Linking cognition with fitness in a wild primate: fitness correlates of problem solving performance and spatial learning ability. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B 373: 20170295.

Kittler K, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2018) Instrumental problem solving in three lemur species. Journal of Comparative Psychology 302: 306-314

Peckre RL, Defolie C, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2018) Potential self-medication using millipede secretions in red-fronted lemurs: combining anointment and ingestion for a joint action against gastrointestinal parasites? Primates.

Rakotonirina H, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2018) The role of facial pattern variation for species recognition in red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons). BMC Evolutionary Biology 18:19. DOI 10.1186/s12862-018-1126-0

Sehner S, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2018) Primate tails: Ancestral state reconstruction and determinants of interspecific variation in primate tail length. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 167: 750-759

Tucker MA, Böhning-Gaese K, …, Fichtel C, …, Mueller T (2018) Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements. Science 359: 466-469

Kappeler PM, Cuozzo FP, Fichtel C, Ganzhorn JU, Gursky-Doyen S, Irwin MT, Ichino S, Lawler R, Nekaris AI, Ramananmanjato JB, Radespiel U, Sauther ML, Wright PC, Zimmerman E (2017) Long-term field studies of lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers. Journal of Mammalogy 98:661–669. 

Koch F, Ganzhorn JU, Rothman JM, Chapman CA, Fichtel C (2017) Sex and seasonal differences in diet and nutrient intake in Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). American Journal of Primatology 79:e22595

Rakotonirina H, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2017) Evolution of facial color complexity in lemurs. Scientific Reports 7: 15181, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-15393-7

Sperber AV, Werner L, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2017) Grunt to go – Vocal coordination of group movements in redfronted lemurs. Ethology 123:894-905. DOI: 10.1111/eth.12663

Ethology. 2017;00:1–12.

Springer A, Fichtel C, Al‐Ghalith GA, Koch F, Amato KR, Clayton JB, Knights D, Kappeler PM (2017) Patterns of seasonality and group membership characterize the gut microbiota in a longitudinal study of wild Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). Ecology and Evolution 7:57-32-5745.

Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2016) The evolution of Eulemur social organization. International Journal of Primatology 37:10-28

Koch F, Signer J, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2016) The role of the residence-effect on the outcome of intergroup encounters in Verreaux’s sifakas. Scientific Reports, 6: 28457.

Koch F, Signer J, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2016) Intergroup encounters in Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi): who fights and why? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 70: 797-808

Rakotonirina H, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2016) The role of acoustic signals for species recognition in redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons). BMC Evolutionary Biology, 16:1

Springer A, Mellmann A, Fichtel C, Kappeler P (2016) Social structure and Escherichio coli sharing in a group-living wild primate, Verreaux’s sifaka. BMC Ecology 16:6

Huebner F, Fichtel C (2015) Innovation and behavioral flexibility in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons). Animal Cognition 18:777-787

Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2015) Eco-evo-devo of the lemur syndrome: did adaptive behavioral plasticity get canalized in a large primate radiation? Frontiers in Zoology 12(Suppl 1):S15.

Kittler K, Schnoell AV, Fichtel C (2015) Cognition in ring-tailed lemurs. Folia Primatologica 86:106-116

Springer A, Fichtel C, Calvignac-Spencer S, Leendertz FH, Kappeler PM (2015) Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Plasmodium and Babesia interact in a lemur species. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 4: 385-395

Springer A, Razafimanantsoa L, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2015) Comparison of three short-term immobilization regimes in wild Verreaux's Sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi): Ketamine–Xylazine, Ketamine–Xylazine–Atropine, and Tiletamine–Zolazepam.” Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 46(3):482–90.

Pechouskova E, Dammhahn M, Brameier M, Fichtel C, Kappeler P M, Huchard E (2015) MHC class II variation in a rare and ecological specialist mouse lemur reveals lower allelic richness and contrasting selection patterns compared to a generalist and widespread sympatric congener. Immunogenetics 67:229-245

Burkart JM, Allon O, Amici F, Fichtel C, Finkenwirth C, Heschl A, Huber J, Isler K, Kosonen ZK, Martins E, Meulman EJ, Richiger R, Rueth K, Spillmann B, Wiesendanger S & van Schaik CP (2014) The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation. Nature Communications 5:4747

Fichtel C (2014) Acoustic differences in loud calls of Decken's and Crowned sifakas. Primate Conservation, 28:85-91

Schnoell AV, Dittmann M T & Fichtel C (2014) Human-introduced long-term traditions in wild redfronted lemurs. Animal Cognition 17:45-54

Schnoell AV, Huebner F, Kappeler PM & Fichtel C (2014) Manual lateralization in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) in a natural and an experimental task. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153: 61-67

Székely T, Liker A, Freckleton RP, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2014) Sex-biased survival predicts adult sex ratio variation in wild birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20140342

Pasquaretta C, Levé M, Claidière N, van de Waal E, Whiten A, MacIntosh AJJ, Pelé M, Bergstorm ML, Borgeaud C, Brosnan SF, Croffot MC, Fedigan LM, Fichtel C, Hopper LM; Mareno MC, Petit O, Schnoell AV, di Sorrentino EP, Thierry B, Tiddi B, Sueur C (2014) Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks. Scientific Report 4:7600. doi: 10.1038/srep07600

Markolf M, Rakotonirina R, Fichtel C, Grumbkow P, Brameier M & Kappeler PM (2013) True lemurs...true species? - Species delimitation using multiple data sources in the brown lemur complex. BMC Evolutionary Biology,13:233

Pyritz L, Fichtel C, Huchard E, Kappeler PM (2013) Determinants and outcomes of decision-making, group coordination and social interactions during a foraging experiment in a wild primate. PLoS ONE 8:e53144

Schaumburg F, Mugisha L, Kappeller P, Fichtel C, Köck R, Köndgen S, Becker K, Boesch C, Peters G, Leendertz F (2013) Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor Staphylococcus aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs. PLoS ONE 8:e78046

Schnoell AV & Fichtel C (2013) A novel feeding behaviour in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons): depletion of spider nests. Primates 54:371-375

Hilgartner R, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM, Zinner D (2012) Determinants of pair-living in red-tailed sportive lemurs (Lepilemur ruficaudatus). Ethology 118:466-479

Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2012) Female reproductive competition in Eulemur rufifrons: Eviction and reproductive restraint in a plurally breeding Malagasy primate. Molecular Ecology 21:685-698

Pflüger FJ, Fichtel C (2012) On the function of redfronted lemur's close calls. Animal Cognition 15:823-831

Schnoell AV, Fichtel C (2012) Wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) use social information to learn new foraging techniques. Animal Cognition 15:505-516

Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2011) Variation in the meaning of alarm calls in Verreaux’s and Coquerel’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi, P. coquereli). International Journal of Primatology 32:346-361

Fichtel C, Zucchini W, Hilgartner R (2011) Out of sight but not out of mind. Behavioral coordination in red-tailed sportive lemurs. International Journal of Primatology 32:1383-1396

Pyritz L, Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2011) Coordination of group movements in wild red-fronted lemurs: Processes and influence of ecological and reproductive seasonality. International Journal of Primatology 32:1325-1347

Pyritz L, King AJ, Sueur C, Fichtel C (2011) Reaching a consensus: Terminology and concepts used in coordination and decision-making research. International Journal of Primatology 32:1268-1278

Pyritz L, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2010) Conceptual and methodological issues in the comparative study of collective group movements. Behavioural Processes 84:681-684

Rahlfs M, Fichtel C (2010) Anti-predator behaviour in a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Ethology 116:429-439

Barthold J, Fichtel C, Kappeler P. (2009) What is it going to be? Pattern and potential function of natal coat change in sexually dichromatic redfronted emurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138:1-10

Lührs M, Fichtel C, Dammhahn M, Kappeler P. (2009) Spatial memory in mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Animal Cognition 12:599-609

Benadi G, Fichtel C, Kappeler P (2008). Inter-group relations and home range use in Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). American journal of Primatology 70:956-965

Fichtel C (2008) Ontogeny of conspecific and heterospecific alarm call recognition in Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi). American Journal of Primatology 70:127-135

Gros-Louis J, Perry S, Fichtel C, Wikberg E, Gilkenson H, Wofsy S, Fuentes A. (2008) Vocal repertoire of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus): acoustic structure, context and usage. International Journal of Primatology 29:641-670

Fichtel C (2007) Avoiding predators at night: antipredator strategies in red-tailed sportive lemurs (Lepilemur ruficaudatus). American Journal of Primatology 69:611-624

Fichtel C, Kraus C, Ganswindt A, Heistermann M (2007) Influence of reproductive season and rank on fecal glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging male Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). Hormones and Behavior 51:640-648 

Fichtel C, van Schaik CP (2006) Semantic differences in sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) alarm calls: a reflection of genetic or cultural variants? Ethology 112:839-849

Fichtel C, Gros-Louis J & Perry S (2005) Alarm calls of white-faced capuchin monkeys: an acoustic analysis. Animal Behaviour 70: 165-176 

Fichtel C (2004) Reciprocal recognition in sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) and redfronted lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus) alarm calls. Animal Cognition 7: 45-52

Trillmich J, Fichtel C & Kappeler P M (2004) Coordination of group movements in wild Verraux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi). Behaviour 141: 1103-1120

Fichtel C, Hammerschmidt K (2003) Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113:2927-2932

Fichtel C & Hammerschmidt K (2002) Responses of redfronted lemurs to experimentally modified terrestrial alarm calls: evidence for urgency-based changes in call structure. Ethology, 108:763-777

Fichtel C & Kappeler P M (2002) Anti-predator behavior of group-living Malagasy primates: mixed evidence for a referential alarm call system. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 51: 262-275

Fichtel C (2001) Emotional correlates in vocalizations of primates. PhD-thesis, Free University, Berlin

Fichtel C, Hammerschmidt K, Jürgens J (2001) On the vocal expression of emotion. A multi-parametric analysis of different states of aversion in the squirrel monkey. Behaviour 138:97-116

Naguib M, Fichtel C, Todt D (1999) Nightingales respond more strongly to vocal leaders of simulated dyadic interactions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 266:537-542





Book Chapters

Kappeler PM, Fichtel C, van Schaik CP (2019) There ought to be roots: Evolutionary precursors of social norms and conventions in non-human primates. In: Bayertz K & Roughley N (eds) The Normative Animal? On the anthropological significance of social, moral and linguistic norms. Oxford University Press. 

Lixing S, Li J-H, Sueur C, Garber PA, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2019) Recent developments in primatology and their relevance to the study of Tibetan macaques. IN: The behavioral ecology of Tibetan macaques. Springer Open.

Wang X, Fichtel C, Li J-h (2019) Social relationships impact collective decision-making in Tibetan macaques. IN: The behavioral ecology of Tibetan macaques. Springer Open.

Fichtel C (2016) Predation in the dark: antipredator strategies of Cheirogaleidae and other nocturnal primates. In: Lehman S, Radespiel U, Zimmerman E (eds) The Dwarf and Mouse Lemurs of Madagascar. Biology, Behavior and Conservation Biogeography of the Cheirogaleidae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 366-380

Fichtel C (2014) Evolution von Kultur bei Primaten. IN: Evolution. Sammelband der Vorträge des Studium Generale der Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg im Sommersemester 2013, Karlheinz Sonntag (Hg), Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, p 163-179

Fichtel C, Hilgartner R (2013) Noises in the dark: vocal communication in nocturnal pair-living primates. In: Master J, Gamba M, Génin F (eds) Leaping Ahead: Advances in Prosimian Biology. Springer, New York, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, pp 297-304

Fichtel C (2012) Trikottausch. In: Pyritz, L (ed) Madagaskar von Makis und Menschen. Springer. Berlin-Heidelberg. p. 112

Fichtel C (2012) Lemurentradition. In: Pyritz, L (ed) Madagaskar von Makis und Menschen. Springer. Berlin-Heidelberg. p. 118

Fichtel C (2012) Predation. In: Mitani JC, Call J, Kappeler P, Palombit R, Silk J (eds) The evolution of primate societies. Chicago University Press, Chicago, pp 169-194

Kappeler PM, Fichtel C (2012) A 15-year perspective on the social organization and life history of Sifaka in Kirindy Forest. In: Kappeler PM, Watts DP (eds) Long-Term Field Studies of Primates. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 101-124

Fichtel C, Pyritz L, Kappeler PM (2011) Coordination of group movements in non-human primates. In: Boos M, Kolbe M, Ellwart S, Kappeler PM (eds) Coordination in human and non-human primate groups. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin, pp 37-56

Fichtel C, Scheiner E, Maack B (2011) Über die Kommunikation bei nichtmenschlichen Primaten und die Evolution von Sprache. In: Dreesmann D, Graf D, Witte K (eds) Evolutionsbiologie: Moderne Themen für den Unterricht. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 217-258

Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2010) Human universals and primate symplesiomorphies: establishing the lemur baseline. In: Kappeler PM, Silk J (eds) Mind the gap: Tracing the origins of human universals. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 395-426

Fichtel C, Manser MB (2010) Communication in social groups. In: Kappeler PM (ed) Animal Behaviour: Evolution and mechanisms. Springer, Berlin, pp 29-54

Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2006) Recent research activities of the German Primate Center (DPZ) in Kirindy forest / CFPF, Morondava. In: Proceedings of the German-Malagasy Research Cooperation in Life and Earth Sciences. Schwitzer C, Brandt S, Ramilijaona O, Razanahoera MR, Ackermand D, Razakamanana T, Ganzhorn JU (eds) Concept-Verlag, Berlin, pp 127-134

Jürgens U, Fichtel C, Hammerschmidt K (2001) On the vocal expression of aversion: A multi-parametric acoustical analysis in a non-human primate. L'Harmattan, Paris, pp 87-91



Articles in non- Refereed Journals

Rudolph K, Fichtel C (2017) Inhibitory control in douc langurs (Pygathrix nemaeus and P. cinerea). Vietnamese Journal of Primatology 2: 73-81.

Schnoell AV, Fichtel C (2012) Predation on redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) by fossas (Cryptoprocta ferox). Lemur News 16:30-32

Fichtel C (2009) Costs of alarm calling: lemur alarm calls attract fossas. Lemur News 14:53-55

Dammhahn M, Schäffler L, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2009) Rapid lemur survey in northern Menabe. Lemur News 14:13-16

Eberle M & Fichtel C (2009) Sexuelle Selektion und die Evolution von Paarungssystemen bei Primaten-einschließlich des Menschen. Praxis der Naturwissenschaften Biologie 3: 22-28


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